World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Hypocalcemia and Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients Post-bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review

Pallikonda S Madhulika, Juan U González-Tova

Citation Information : Madhulika PS, González-Tova JU. Hypocalcemia and Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients Post-bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review. World J Lap Surg 2017; 10 (3):108-111.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10033-1317

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).


Introduction: Bariatric surgery is viewed as the best tool for the control and treatment of severe obesity; however, postsurgery, they have a greater risk of developing nutritional deficiencies as this procedure hinders the absorption of most of the nutrients. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D insufficiency and that of calcium in bone in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and the mode of administration of calcium, its dosage, and efficacy. Materials and methods: A precise survey was performed with articles identified that are associated with the subject of interest. Articles from 10 years back were looked up in PubMed, the US National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane utilizing the headings “bariatric surgery,” “bone,” “obesity,” “vitamin D,” “calcium,” and “absorption.” Results: Five articles were incorporated into this survey that have analyzed the facts that bariatric surgery can cause wholesome inadequacies of nutrition and poor assimilation of fats and fat-dissolvable vitamins and micronutrients, e.g., calcium. Conclusion: Patients submitted to RYGB should make use of multivitamins and minerals, especially vitamin D and calcium to prevent bone fractures. Monitoring, treatment, and control of risk factors are essential to prevent complications after this operation.

PDF Share
  1. Barrow CJ. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. AORN J 2002 Oct;76(4):590, 593-604.
  2. Jones KB Jr. Bariatric surgery—where do we go from here? Int Surg 2004 Jan;89(1):51-57.
  3. Weber M, Müller MK, Bucher T, Wildi S, Dindo D, Horber F, Hauser R, Clavien PA. Laparoscopic gastric bypass is superior to laparoscopic gastric banding for treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2004 Dec;240(6):975-982.
  4. Compston JE, Horton LW, Laker MF, Ayers AB, Woodhead JS, Bull HJ, Gazet JC, Pilkington TR. Bone disease after jejunoileal bypass for obesity. Lancet 1978 Jul;2(8079):1-4.
  5. Eddy RL. Metabolic bone disease after gastrectomy. Am J Med 1971 Apr;50(4):442-449.
  6. Halverson JD, Teitelbaum SL, Haddad JG, Murphy WA. Skeletal abnormalities after jejunoileal bypass. Ann Surg 1979 Jun;189(6):785-790.
  7. Parfitt AM, Miller MJ, Frame B, Villanueva AR, Oliver I, Thomson DL. Metabolic bone disease after intestinal bypass for treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med 1978 Aug;89(2): 193-199.
  8. Zittel TT, Zeeb B, Maier GW, Kaiser GW, Zwirner M, Liebich H, Starlinger M, Becker HD. High prevalence of bone disorders after gastrectomy. Am J Surg 1997 Oct;174(4):431-438.
  9. Charles P, Mosekilde L, Sondergard K, Jensen FT. Treatment with high-dose oral vitamin D2 in patients with jejuno-ileal bypass for morbid obesity. Effects on calcium and magnesium metabolism, vitamin D metabolites, and faecal lag time. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984 Nov;19(8):1031-1038.
  10. Danö P, Christiansen C. Calcium malabsorption and absence of bone decalcination following intestinal shunt operation for obesity. A comparison of two types of operation. Scand J Gastroenterol 1978;13(1):81-85.
  11. Hylander E, Jarnum S, Kempel K, Thale M. The absorption of oxalate, calcium, and fat after jejunoileal bypass. A prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1980;15(3):343-348.
  12. Nunan TO, Compston JE, Tonge C. Intestinal calcium absorption in patients after jejuno-ileal bypass or small intestinal resection and the effect of vitamin D. Digestion 1986;34(1):9-14.
  13. Rannem T, Hylander E, Jarnum S, Ladefoged K, Schaadt O, Staun M, Thale M. Calcium absorption and bone mineral content in patients subjected to ileal bypass because of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Scand J Gastroenterol 1990 Sep;25(9):897-905.
  14. Sellin JH, Meredith SC, Kelly S, Schneir H, Rosenberg IH. Prospective evaluation of metabolic bone disease after jejunoileal bypass. Gastroenterology 1984 Jul;87(1):123-129.
  15. Silveira-Júnior S, de Albuquerque MM, do Nascimento RR, da Rosa LS, Hygidio DA, Zapelini RM. Nutritional repercussions in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Arq Bras Cir Dig 2015;28(1):48-52.
  16. Alvarez-Leite JI. Nutrient deficiencies secondary to bariatric surgery. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2004 Sep;7(5): 569-575.
  17. Santos TD, Burgos MG, de Lemos MC, Cabral PC. Clinical and nutritional aspects in obese women during the first year after roux-en-y gastric bypass. Arq Bras Cir Dig 2015 Dec;28(Suppl 1): 56-60.
  18. Vasconcelos RS, Viégas M, Marques TF, Diniz ET, Lucena CS, Câmara Neto JB, Bandeira F. Factors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in premenopausal women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for the treatment of obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2010 Mar;54(2):233-238.
  19. Flores L, Osaba MJ, Andreu A, Moizé V, Rodríguez L, Vidal J. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation after gastric bypass should be individualized to improve or avoid hyperparathyroidism. Obes Surg 2010 Jun;20(6):738-743.
  20. Williams SE, Cooper K, Richmond B, Schauer P. Perioperative management of bariatric surgery patients: focus on metabolic bone disease. Cleve Clin J Med 2008 May;75(5):333-334, 336, 338 passim.
  21. Avgerinos DV, Leitman IM, Martínez RE, Liao EP. Evaluation of markers for calcium homeostasis in a population of obese adults undergoing gastric bypass operations. J Am Coll Surg 2007 Aug;205(2):294-297.
  22. Riedt CS, Brolin RE, Sherrell RM, Field MP, Shapses SA. True fractional calcium absorption is decreased after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006 Nov;14(11):1940-1948.
  23. Goldner WS, Stoner JA, Thompson J, Taylor K, Larson L, Erickson J, McBride C. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in morbidly obese patients: a comparison with non-obese controls. Obes Surg 2008 Feb;18(2):145-150.
  24. Hamoui N, Anthone G, Crookes PF. Calcium metabolism in the morbidly obese. Obes Surg 2004 Jan;14(1):9-12.
  25. Stein EM, Straint G, Sinha N, Ortiz D, Pomp A, McMahon DJ, Bockman R, Silverberg SJ. Vitamin D insufficiency prior to bariatric surgery: risk factors and a pilot treatment study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2009 Aug;71(2):176-183.
  26. Costa TM, Paganoto M, Radominski RB, Borba VZ. Impact of deficient nutrition in bone mass after bariatric surgery. Arq Bras Cir Dig 2016 Mar;29(1):38-42.
  27. Santos EF, Tsuboi KH, Palu BF, Araújo MR, Andreollo NA, Miyasaka CK. Partial gastrectomy associated to anterior truncal vagotomy: alterations in metabolism of the calcium. Experimental study in rats. Arq Bras Cir Dig 2009 Apr-Jun;22(2):105-109.
  28. Tseng LN, Berends FJ, Wittich P, Bouvy ND, Marquet RL, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ. Port-site metastases. Impact of local tissue trauma and gas leakage. Surg Endosc 1998 Dec;12(12): 1377-1380.
  29. Wittich P, Mearadji A, Marquet RL, Bonjer HJ. Irrigation of port sites: prevention of port site metastases? J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2004 Jun;14(3):125-129.
  30. Neuhaus SJ, Watson DI, Ellis T, Rofe AM, Jamieson GG. Influence of cytotoxic agents on intraperitoneal tumor implantation after laparoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum 1999 Jan;42:10-15.
  31. Kadi N, Isherwood M, Al-Akraa M, Williams S. Port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for urological malignancy: forgotten or missed. Adv Urol 2012 Jan;2012:609531.
  32. El-Hakim A, Chiu KY, Sherry B, Bhuiya T, Smith AD, Lee BR. Peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediators of laparoscopic bowel injury in a rabbit model. J Urol 2004 Oct;172 (4 Pt 1):1515-1519.
  33. Burns JM, Matthews BD, Pollinger HS, Mostafa G, Joels CS, Austin CE, Kercher KW, Norton HJ, Heniford BT. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and wound closure technique on port site tumor implantation in a rat model. Surg Endosc 2005 Mar;19(3):441-447.
  34. Colombo JR Jr, Haber GP, Rubinstein M, Gill IS. Laparoscopic surgery in urological oncology: brief overview. Int Braz J Urol 2006 Sep-Oct;32(5):504-512.
  35. Shimokihara K, Kawahara T, Takamoto D, Mochizuki T, Hattori Y, Teranishi J-i, Miyoshi Y, Chiba S, Uemura H. Port site recurrence after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. J Med Case Rep 2017 Jun;11(1):151.
  36. Huang J, Lin T, Liu H, Xu K, Zhang C, Jiang C, Huang H, Yao Y, Guo Z, Xie W. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder for bladder cancer: oncologic results of 171 cases with a median 3-year follow-up. Eur Urol 2010 Sep;58(3):442-449.
  37. Spermon JR, Witjes JA. Case report: the danger of postchemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma. J Endourol 2008 May;22(5):1013-1016.
  38. Masterson TA, Russo P. A case of port-site recurrence and locoregional metastasis after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2008 Jun;5(6):345-349.
  39. Segawa N, Azuma H, Takahara K, Hamada S, Kotake Y, Tsuji M, Katsuokai Y. [Port-site metastasis after retroperitoneoscopy-assisted nephroureterectomy and cystectomy for bladder cancer invading the ureter: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo 2008 Jan;54(1):13-16.
  40. Cresswell J, Scheitlin W, Grozen A, Lenz E, Teber D, Rassweiler J. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection combined with adjuvant chemotherapy for pathological stage II disease in nonseminomatous germ cell tumours: a 15-year experience. Br J Urol Int 2008;102:844-848.
  41. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Díaz M, Sánchez-Salas R. Port-site metastasis after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: case report and literature review. J Endourol 2007 Apr;21(4): 404-407.
  42. Muntener M, Nielsen ME, Romero FR, Schaeffer EM, Allaf ME, Brito FA, Pavlovich CP, Kavoussi LR, Jarrett TW. Long-term oncologic outcome after laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2007 Jun;51(6):1639-1644.
  43. Manabe D, Saika T, Ebara S, Uehara S, Nagai A, Fujita R, Irie S, Yamada D, Tsushima T, Nasu Y, et al.; Okayama Urological Research Group, Okayama, Japan. Comparative study of oncologic outcome of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and standard nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2007 Mar;69(3):457-461.
  44. Dhobada S, Patankar S, Gorde V. Port-site metastasis after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal-cell carcinoma: case report. J Endourol 2006 Feb;20(2):119-122.
  45. Kobori Y, Shigehara K, Amano T, Takemae K. [Port site metastasis of primary adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis after a laparoscopic nephrectomy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo 2005 Feb;51(2):105-108.
  46. El-Tabey NA, Shoma AM. Port site metastases after robot assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. Urology 2005 Nov;66(5):1110.
  47. Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Bovio S, Destefanis P, Alì A, Terrone C, Fontana D, Scarpa RM, Tempia A, Terzolo M. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: a comparison between laparoscopy and open surgery. J Endocrinol Invest 2004 Jul-Aug;27(7):654-658.
  48. Chueh S-CJ, Tsaia I-D, Laia M-K. Solitary port-site metastasis after laparoscopic bilateral nephroureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma in a renal transplant recipient. Transplant Proc 2004 Nov;36(9):2697-2698.
  49. Naderi N, Nieuwenhuijzen JA, Bex A, Kooistra A, Horenblas S. Port site metastasis after laparoscopic nephro-ureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2004 Oct;46(4): 440-441.
  50. Iwamura M, Tsumura H, Matsuda D, Kurosaka S, Yoshida K, Baba S. Port site recurrence of renal cell carcinoma following retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy with manual extraction without using entrapment sac or wound protector. J Urol 2004 Mar;171(3):1234-1235.
  51. Matsui Y, Ohara H, Ichioka K, Terada N, Yoshimura K, Terai A. Abdominal wall metastasis after retroperitoneoscopic assisted total nephroureterectomy for renal pelvic cancer. J Urol 2004 Feb;171(2 Pt 1):793.
  52. Saraiva P, Rodrigues H, Rodrigues P. Portsite recurrence after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic melanoma. Int Braz J Urol 2003 Nov-Dec;29(6):520-521.
  53. Chen YT, Yang SSD, Hsieh CH, Wang CC. Hand port-site metastasis of renal-cell carcinoma following hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy: case report. J Endourol 2003 Nov;17(9):771-775.
  54. Wang PH, Yen MS, Juang CM, Chen YJ, Chao HT, Yuan CC. Intraperitoneal cancer spread after laparoscopic cystectomy for mature teratoma with malignant transformation. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2002;23(2):131-132.
  55. Castilho LN, Fugita OE, Mitre AI, Arap S. Port site tumor recurrences of renal cell carcinoma after videolaparoscopic radical nephrectomy. J Urol 2001 Feb;165(2):519.
  56. Landman J, Clayman RV. Re: port site tumor recurrences of renal cell carcinoma after videolaparoscopic radical nephrectomy (letter). J Urol 2001 Aug;166(2):629-630.
  57. Fentie DD, Barret PH, Taranger LA. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy: long-term follow-up. J Endourol 2000 Jun;14(5):407-411.
  58. Otani M, Irie S, Tsuji Y. Port site metastasis after laparoscopic nephrectomy: unsuspected transitional cell carcinoma within a tuberculous atrophic kidney. J Urol 1999 Aug;162(2):486-487.
  59. Ahmed I, Shaikh NA, Kapadia CR. Track recurrence of renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Br J Urol 1998 Feb;81(2):319.
  60. Altieri V, D'Armiento M, Desio M, Ucciero G, Lotti T, Graziotti PP. Can laparoscopic lymphadenectomy disseminate bladder cancer? Acta Urol Ital 1998 Jan;12:231-233.
  61. Bangma C, Kirkels WJ, Chadha S, Schröder FH. Cutaneous metastasis following laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 1995 May;153(5):1635-1636.
  62. Andersen JR, Steven K, Smith AD. Implantation metastasis after laparoscopic biopsy of bladder cancer. J Urol 1995 Mar;153(3 Pt 2):1047-1048.
  63. Maciel GA, Soares Junior (Jr), Alves Da Motta EL, Abi Haidar M, De Lima AR, Baracat EC. Nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome respond better than obese women to treatment with metformin. Fertil Steril 2004;81:355-60.
  64. Kumari AS, Haq A, Jayasundaram R, Abdel-Wareth LO, Al Haija SA, Alvarez M. Metformin monotherapy in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. R & Pro D. Biomed Online 2005;10:100-04.
  65. Crave JC, Fimbel S, Lejeune H, Cugnardey N, Dechaud H, Pugeat M. Effects of diet and metformin administration on sex hormone binding globulin, androgens, and insulin in hirsute and obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2057-62.
  66. Pasquali R, Gambineri A, Biscotti D, Vicennati V, Gagliardi L, Colitta D, Fiorini S, Cognigni GE, Filicori M, Morselli-Labate AM. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2767-74.
  67. Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, Sturis J, Rosenfield RL, Polonsky KS. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:524-30.
  68. De Leo V, la Marca A, Ditto A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 1999;72:282-85.
  69. Yarali H, Yildiz B, Demirol A, Zeyneloglu HB, Yigit N, Bukulmez O, Koray Z. Co-administration of metformin during rFSH treatment in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: A prospective randomized trial. Hum Reprod 2002;17:289-94.
  70. Palomba S, Falbo A, Orio F (Jr), Manguso F, Russo T, Tolino A, Colao A, Dale B, Zullo F. A randomized controlled trial evaluating metformin pretreatment and coadministration in nonobese insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Hum Reprod 2005 Jun 15 (Epub ahead of print).
  71. Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Metformin treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization improves outcomes and is associated with modulation of the insulin-like growth factors. Fertil Steril 2001;75:505-09.
  72. Stadtmauer LA, Toma SK, Riehl RM, Talbert LM. Impact of metformin therapy on ovarian stimulation and outcome in ‘coasted’ patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing in vitro fertilization. Reprod Biomed Online 2002;5:112-16.
  73. Glueck CJ, Phillips H, Cameron D, Sieve-Smith L, Wang P. Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce firsttrimester spontaneous abortion: A pilot study. Fertil Steril 2001;75:46-52.
  74. Kocak M, Caliskan E, Simsir C, Haberal A. Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2002;77:101-06.
  75. Cole PA, Robinson CH. Mechanism and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 aromatase. J Med Chem 1990;33:2933-42.
  76. Akhtar M, Njar VC, Wright JN. Mechanistic studies on aromatase and related C-C bond cleaving P-450 enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993;44:375-87.
  77. Palter SF, Tavares AB, Hourvitz A, Veldhuis JD, Adashi EY. Are estrogens of import to primate/human ovarian folliculogenesis? Endocr Rev 2001;22:389-424.
  78. Weil S, Vendola K, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgen and follicle stimulating hormone interactions in primate ovarian follicle development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2951-56.
  79. Vendola KA, Zhou J, Adesanya OO, Weil SJ, Bondy CA. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary. J Clin Invest 1998;101:2622-29.
  80. Giudice LC. Insulin-like growth factors and ovarian follicular development. Endocr Rev 1992;13:641-69.
  81. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of infertility. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003;12:353-71.
  82. Mitwally MF, Biljan MM, Casper RF. Pregnancy outcome after the use of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:381-86.
  83. Mitwally MFM, Casper RF. The use of aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in cases of clomiphene citrate failure. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14:255-63.
  84. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 2001;75:305-09.
  85. Sammour A, Bijan MM, Tan SL, Tulandi T. Prospective randomised trial comparing the effects of letrazole (LE) and clomiphene citrate (CC) on follicular development, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate in patients undergoing superovulation prior to intrauterine insemination (IUI). Fertil Steril 2001;76(Suppl 1):S110.
  86. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Single-dose administration of an aromatase inhibitor for ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2005;83:229-31.
  87. Fisher SA, Reid RL, Van Vugt DA, Casper RF. A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects of clomiphene citrate and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole on ovulatory function in normal women. Fertil Steril 2002;78:280-85.
  88. Fatemi HM, Kalibianakis E, Tournaye H, Camus M, Van Steirteghem AC, Devroey P. Clomiphene citrate vs letrozole for ovarian stimulation: A pilot study. Reprod Biomed Online 2003;7:543-46.
  89. Hu Y, Cortvrindt R, Smitz J. Effects of aromatase inhibition on in vitro follicle and oocyte development analyzed by early preantral mouse follicle culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2002;61: 549-59.
  90. Shetty G, Krishnamurthy H, Krishnamurthy HN, Bhatnagar S, Moudgal NR. Effect of estrogen deprivation on the reproductive physiology of male and female primates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1997;61:157-66.
  91. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition reduces gonadotrophin dose required for controlled ovarian stimulation in women with unexplained infertility. Hum Reprod 2003;18:1588-97.
  92. Mitwally MF, Casper RF. Aromatase inhibition improves ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responders. Fertil Steril 2002;77:776-80.
  93. Goswami SK, Das T, Chattopadhyay R, Sawhney V, Kumar J, Chaudhury K, Chakravarty BN, Kabir SN. A randomized single blind controlled trial of letrozole as a low-cost IVF protocol in women with poor ovarian response: A preliminary report. Hum Reprod 2004;19:2031-35.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.