World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles


COVID-19 and Surgical Preparedness

Mohit Sharma, Priyanka Devgun

Keywords : COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 and Punjab, Healthcare professionals, Surgical workforce

Citation Information : Sharma M, Devgun P. COVID-19 and Surgical Preparedness. World J Lap Surg 2021; 14 (3):186-190.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10033-1466

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-03-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: The rapid and large-scale spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major cause of concern for healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the preparedness of surgical specialty personals in managing surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted online from May 5, 2020, to June 5, 2020, through a predesigned and pretested questionnaire-based proforma on the preparedness of surgical practice related to COVID-19 infection circulated through Google Forms. The participants selected were serving in Punjab and holding allopathic degrees in any of the surgical specialties. Exclusion criteria were responses by nonsurgical specialists and incompletely filled proforma. A total of 412 responses were received, out of which 318 were valid responses in terms of completeness of proforma. The data so collected were compiled and statistically analyzed by SPSS v.21 (IBM). Results: Three-hundred and eighteen received responses were analyzed. Mean age was 42.3 ± 10 years. Male-to-female ratio was 2.38:1. Majority of the respondents were from general surgery specialty 130 (40.8%). Two-hundred and thirty-eight respondents were from private sector and 80 from public sector. One-hundred and sixty-six (52.2%) respondents reported existence of standard protocols and triage for COVID-19 at their workplace. Two-hundred and fourteen (67.2%) respondents stated that they usually get patients tested for COVID-19 before elective surgery. Two-hundred and seventeen (68.2%) of the respondents reported checking out the correct sequence of donning and doffing the personal protective equipment (PPE). Of the 170 respondents who had consumed hydrochloroquine as recommended by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), 114 (67%) were private practitioners and 56 (32.9%) were public healthcare sector professionals. Conclusion: Surgical community need guidelines on how to deliver surgical services safely and successfully during COVID-19 pandemic.

  1. Nagarajan R. 6 states have more doctors than WHO's 1:1000 guideline. The Times of India. 2018. Available from:
  2. Kapur A, Chowdhury A. National Rural Health Mission. GOI Budget Briefs 2011–2012. 2011.
  3. Availability of doctors per capita in India. Answer to Q no 236, Rajya Sabha, MOHFW, GOI Sep 15, 2020. Available from: medical
  4. WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). 2020. Available from:
  5. Spinelli A, Pellino G. Covid-19 pandemic: perspectives on an unfolding crisis. BJS 2020;107(7):785–787. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.11627. Available from:
  6. Pulla P. Covid-19: India imposes lockdown for 21 days and cases rise. BMJ 2020;368:m1251. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m1251.
  7. Nepogodiev D. Global guidance for surgical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Br J Surg 2020;107(9):1097–1103. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.11646.
  8. Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Intercollegiate general surgery guidance on COVID-19 update. 2020. Available from: [Accessed April 6, 2020]
  9. Mowbray N, Ansell J, Warren N, et al. Is surgical smoke harmful to theater staff? A systematic review. Surg Endosc 2013;27(9):3100–3107. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-013-2940-5.
  10. Mowbray NG, Ansell J, Horwood J, et al. Safe management of surgical smoke in the age of COVID-19. Br J Surg 2020;107(11):1406–1413. DOI:10.1002/bjs.11679.
  11. Francis N, Dort J, Cho E, et al. SAGES and EAES recommendations for minimally invasive surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. Surg Endosc 2020;34(6):2327–2331. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-020-07565-w.
  12. Coccolini F, Perrone G, Chiarugi M, et al. Surgery in COVID-19 patients: operational directives. World J Emer Surg 2020;15(1):25. DOI: 10.1186/s13017-020-00307-2.
  13. Li CI, Pai YJ, Chen CH. Characterization of smoke generated during the use of surgical knife in laparotomy surgeries. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2020;70(3):324–332. DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2020.1717675.
  14. Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Intercollegiate general surgery guidance on COVID-19 update. 2020. Available from: [Accessed April 6, 2020].
  15. Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, et al. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's disease? Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3(11):722–727. DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(03)00806-5.
  16. Al-Bari MAA. Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases. Pharmacol Res Perspect 2017;5(1):e00293. DOI: 10.1002/prp2.293.
  17. Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippoloto M, et al. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. J Crit Care 2020;57:279–283. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005.
  18. National Taskforce for COVID-19. Advisory on the use of hydroxyl-chloroquine as prophylaxis for SARS-COV-2 infection. 2020. Available from: chloroquineasprophylaxisforSARSCOV2infection.pdf [Accessed March 23, 2020].
  19. Zhang W, Du RH, Zheng XS, et al. Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020;9(1):386–389. DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1729071.
  20. Forrester JD, Nassar AK, Maggio PM, et al. Precautions for operating room team members during the Covid-19 pandemic. J Am Coll Surg 2020;230(6):1098–1101. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.03.030.
  21. Sim SW, Moey KSP, Tan NC. The use of face masks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the health belief model. Singapore Med J 2014;55(3):160–167. DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2014037.
  22. Chughtai AA, Seale H, Dung TC, et al. Compliance with the use of medical and cloth masks among health care workers in Vietnam. Ann Occup Hyg 2016;60(5):619–630. DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mew008.
  23. Carlos YB, Guemes A, Aranda J, et al. Impact of personal protective equipment on surgical performance during the Covid-19 pandemic. World J Surg 2020;44(9):2842–2847. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-020-05648-2.
  24. Modi P, Nair G, Uppe A, et al. COVID-19 awareness among healthcare students and professionals in Mumbai metropolitan region: a questionnaire based survey. Cureus 2020;12(4):e7514. DOI: 10.7759/Cureus.7514.
  25. Di Saverio S. Personal protection during COVID-19+ surgery. 2020. Available from: [Accessed March 26, 2020].
  26. Kinross J. Sterile PPE. Donning and doffing video for surgical aerosol generating procedures. 2020. Available from: [Accessed March 26, 2020].
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.