Aim and background:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can cause chronic gastritis and gastric malignancy. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed to assess the symptoms of abdominal pain but endoscopy alone is not confirmatory. Therefore, either pathological evaluation of biopsies of mucosa or detection of urease in the mucosa by rapid urease test (RUT) produces accurate diagnosis. The study aimed to assess the role of H. pylori infection among patients with chronic abdominal pain and endoscopy-suggested chronic gastritis and also to evaluate the association of endoscopic findings and RUT.
Materials and methods: The prospective randomized study was performed on 50 patients with clinical findings suggestive of chronic gastritis or abdominal pain of unknown etiology. Data regarding patient history and routine physical and clinical examination were recorded. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients. Organs including the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were examined for abnormality and biopsy was performed at various sites of the affected organ. The obtained specimen from biopsy was subjected to RUT.
Results: Endoscopic finding suggested gastritis in 6% (n = 38) of the patients among which 31 patients were RUT positive. A significant association was found between endoscopic findings and RUT (p = 0.013). Patients of 31–40 years of age (n = 11) and males were found to be more commonly affected as indicated by a positive reaction to RUT (n = 27).
Conclusion: RUT facilitates rapid and accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection, and along with endoscopy, can be used in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in chronic gastritis.
Clinical significance: Early diagnosis of H. pylori is essential to formulate early and appropriate clinical strategies for better management of the patient. RUT is a well-known diagnostic test that is rapid, cheap, and simple. It detects urease in or on gastric mucosa produced by the bacteria.
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