The concept of minimal access surgery for gynecologic malignancies has gone from a perceived near impossibility to a fully recognized option for many patients over the past 10 years. This article reviews the different minimal access techniques used for surgical staging of carcinoma endometrium, their outcome, feasibility and safety in comparison to conventional staging laparotomy. After review of literature, it is concluded that laparoscopic and robotic-assisted procedures are acceptable and safer alternatives to traditional laparotomy in the staging of carcinoma endometrium, especially in obese women. Long-term outcome reports for robotic surgery is awaited.
Twelve-year experience in the management of endometrial cancer: A change in surgical and postoperative radiation approaches. Gynecol Oncol 2007;105:150-56.
Controversies in the management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol int 2010;638165.
5 Study Group. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN. 5 randomised trials): Pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Lancet 2009;373(9658):137-46.
Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. Int J Gynaecol Obstet (suppl 1) 2003;83:79-118.
New York, NY, Springer-Verlag 2002.
Robotic hysterectomy pelvic-aortic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:1207-13.
Retrospective analysis of selective lymphadenectomy in apparent early-stage endometrial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:3668-75.
Laparoscopic surgery and gynecologic cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1993;5:294-300.
Laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in the staging of early carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;164:579-81.
Laparoscopic staging of the patient with incompletely staged early adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 1994;83:597-600.
Laparoscopic bilateral pelvic and paraaortic lymph node sampling: An evolving technique. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:105-11.
Laparoscopic staging for endometrial cancer. Long term results of a multicentric study. Eur J Gynecol Oncol 2002;23(4):305-10.
Laparoscopy or laparotomy for the management of endometrial cancer. JSLS Oct-Dec 2005;9(4):442-46.
Adverse event rates between laparoscopic versus open surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:20.
Laparoscopic hysterectomy in the treatment of endometrial cancer: A systematic review. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology July-Aug 2008;15(4):395-401.
A multiinstitutional experience with robotic assisted hysterectomy with staging for endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol Aug 2009;114(2):236-43.
Robotic surgery: Changing the surgical approach for endometrial cancer in a referral cancer center. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology July 2009;16(4):427-31.
Robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology: Program initiation and outcomes after the first year with comparison with laparotomy for endometrial cancer staging. Am J Obstet Gynecol June 2008;198(6):679e1-679e10.
A cohort study evaluating robotic versus laparotomy surgical outcomes of obese women with endometrial carcinoma. Journal of Gynecol Oncol.
Surgical outcomes of robotic-assisted surgical staging for endometrial cancer are equivalent to traditional laparoscopic staging at a minimally invasive surgical center. Gynecologic Oncology May 2010;117(2):224-28.
Minimally invasive comprehensive surgical staging for endometrial cancer: Robotics or laparoscopy? Gynecologic Oncology April 2009;113(1):36-41.
A comparative study of 3 surgical methods for hysterectomy with staging for endometrial cancer: Robotic assistance, laparoscopy, laparotomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol Oct 2008;199(4):360e1-360e9.
Analysis of survival after laparoscopic management of endometrial carcinoma. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology March 2008;15(2):181-87.
Laparoscopic surgery versus laparotomy for early stage endometrial cancer. Long term data of a randomized control trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol March 2009;200(3):296e1-296e9.
Laparoscopic versus open surgery for endometrial cancer: A minimum 3-year follow-up study. Annals of Surgical Oncology 2010;17(1):271-78.